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LACMA entered its 150th year as cultural frustrations once again reached a boiling point in the country, and the world faced a global epidemic that put the spotlight on the widespread health inequities that persisted in the LA County, the state, and the nation. 


Through this lens, LACMA approached this book, choosing to acknowledge its past and celebrate its progress. 


The goal of the book isn’t to disenfranchise or denigrate any individual, group, ideology. The purpose is to illustrate the commonalities, struggles, and achievements of LACMA and its physicians and to provide both context and contextual elements so that the wrongs of the past are not repeated, bridges are built, all viewpoints are shared and respected, and progress continues to be made.

Rosa Parks Freeway


Los Angelinos are blissfully unaware of the official title of the artery that bifurcates their county, dividing the coastal communities to the south from the hills and valley to the north. It begins at the Pacific Ocean. 

Spanish Flu Pandemic


With the virus snowballing out of control, they closed schools and businesses, banned public gatherings, isolated and quarantined those who were infected. Many communities recommended that citizens wear face masks in public – and this, not the onerous lockdowns, drew the most ire. Sweeping through all strata of society from the halls of power to skid row, the contagion, before long, had penetrated the White House. First, a close aide to the President became ill, then the Commander-in-Chief, himself. The year was 1918; the virus––Spanish Flu.


When Nazi officers faced judgment for their war crimes at the Nuremberg trials in the late 1940s, their attorneys mounted a shrewd defense––was it not hypocritical to condemn Germans for pursuing their vision of racial purity when Americans had done the very same thing? The attorneys provided the court with details of laws in Texas, Florida, Maryland, and numerous other states, including California, which outlawed marriage between whites and blacks. Then the advocates entered into the trial record a shocking 1927 U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding a Virginia law that allowed for the forced sterilization of the "feeble-minded," as the term of art went. Unfit persons included the poor, illiterate, blind, deaf, deformed, diseased, orphans, “ne’er-do-wells,” homeless, tramps, and paupers. 

George Dock
Los Angeles


With over two million vehicles and growing on its roads and freeways, 1950s Los Angeles was seeing an alarming rise in smog. With its bowl-like geography made Los Angeles, like Denver and Mexico City, a natural pollution trap, its residents breathing some of the dirtiest air in the world. Then there was the issue of cigarettes which had been given out freely to soldiers during World War II and were rapidly becoming a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions.


Since its founding in 1871, the idea of community health has been among the foremost credos of LACMA. In the decades following Dr. Albert Fields’ groundbreaking work to shape public policy, the association launched a number of initiatives in this regard, including bestowing an award recognizing extraordinary contributions to the county’s wellbeing by individual physicians.

LACMA Employees


For many residents of South-Central Los Angeles, April 29, 1992 is a day they remember the way Americans of a certain age recall September 11––an incident etched indelibly into their memories as the moment their world changed forever. Future LACMA president Dr. Robert Bitonte was one of them.